Henan Museum
No.5, 2023 Cultural Relics of Central China (part 1)
Edit: Gp
Time: 2023-12-25 16:32:57

No. 2 Archaeological Team in Henan, CASS....................................4

A preliminary report of the excavation of the No. 3 building foundation group at the Yanshi Shang City site 

Abstract:Between 2021 and 2023, the No.2 Archaeological Team in Henan, a branch of the Institute of Archaeology within the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, conducted an extensive series of explorations and excavations at the No. 3 building foundation group within the Yanshi Shang City site. This archaeological endeavor successfully confirmed the spatial relationships among the structures within the foundation group, unveiled insights into the dimensions, proportions, and historical dating of these architectural remnants, and definitively ascertained the absence of enclosing structures along the periphery of the base site group. These findings not only enrich the dataset but also introduce fresh perspectives crucial for further delving into the functional characteristics of the Yanshi Shang City site.

Henan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Anyang Municipal Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology..........................................21

A preliminary report of the excavation of the burial M30 at Taojiaying, Anyang 

Abstract:Situated in the northern region of Taojiaying Village within Baizhuang Town, Anyang City, the Taojiaying site was brought to light in April 2021 during a salvage excavation for the local "Hongju-Wanjincheng”project. The site dates to the Middle Shang Dynasty. Notably, the southeastern section of the site yielded 27 tombs from the Middle Shang Dynasty. Of these, 25 tombs were prominently concentrated on the north side of the western portion of the south moat, forming two orderly rows aligned in a north-south orientation. Within this group, tomb M30 is situated in the northeastern corner and stands out for its remarkable preservation and the wealth of unearthed artifacts that it has yielded, comprising a total of 11 pieces of bronze, pottery, and jade artifacts.

Henan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Anyang Municipal Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology..........................................27 

A preliminary report of the Shang-Dynasty burial at Zhongdongmeng, Anyang, Henan Province 

Abstract:During the summer and autumn of 2021, the Anyang Municipal Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology undertook a salvage excavation for the relocation of Zhongdongmeng, Nanwu, and other villages in Anyang County. The excavation revealed a late Shang Dynasty settlement to the north of Houxiaotun and Nanwu Village. It is presumed to be part of Yuanxiaotun previously discovered. The excavation yielded 37 Shang Dynasty tombs, revealing a collection of bronzes, pottery, and other artifacts closely resembling those found at Yinxu. This excavation of the Shang Dynasty tombs provides valuable insights into the understanding of Da Yi Shang settlement within the context of Yinxu, as well as shedding light on the settlement distribution and population movements during the late Shang Dynasty.

HAO Suzhen and ZHANG Guoshuo...............................................41 

On the bronze-casting industry of the Shang Dynasty 

Abstract:Based on current archaeological discoveries of metallurgy, similarities emerge within the bronze industry of the Shang Dynasty. However, variations persist in the scale of production and types of products across different workshop sites. There appears to be an establishment of 'industry standards' governing metallurgical production, with a discernible degree of division of labor, ultimately shaping a production framework centered around ritual vessels. The capital city served as the focal point for the Shang Dynasty's bronze industry, influencing the development of surrounding regions in accordance with central control policies. Bronze workshops can be categorized into four types based on their attributes: Shang royal establishments, local hubs, clan-based setups, and either industrial or civil settings. The evolution of the bronze casting industry unfolds in three stages, reflecting adjustments made by the Shang Dynasty to its management approach in response to the escalating demand from the aristocratic class for bronze ritual vessels. This adaptive strategy aimed to uphold the Shang Dynasty's dominant position, with bronze ritual vessels at its core, by continually refining the management of the metallurgy industry.

SUN Ming....................................................................51 

A comparative study between the Zhengzhou Shang City site and the Yanshi Shang City site in a perspective of the scarce resources 

Abstract:The intricate casting techniques and lengthy production processes of bronze ritual vessels, coupled with the unique materials and firing methods of stamped hard pottery and primitive ceramics, endowed them with attributes akin to scarce resources. The Zhengzhou Shang City site yielded a far greater variety and quantity of bronze ritual vessels, stamped hard pottery, and primitive ceramics compared to those from Yanshi City. Moreover, the bronze ritual vessels in the Zhengzhou Shang City exhibit a significantly higher grade, alongside multiple workshops dedicated to their production, leaving no doubt about their dominant and ruling status. The Yanshi Shang City site, on the other hand, assumes a subsidiary role and a position of subordination that is readily apparent. The Zhengzhou Shang City site, with a higher likelihood of being the capital of the early Shang Dynasty, appears to have been established at the outset of the Shang Dynasty's reign, possibly even serving as the capital under King Tang. The Yanshi Shang City site, conversely, was established as a regional center city with specific political and military objectives. Initially, it may have served to pacify the Xia remnants in the Erlitou region and its surroundings, later evolving to encompass numerous facilities and functional zones characteristic of a capital city.

ZHANG Ying et al. ...................................................60 

A technological analysis of the bronze artifacts and casting relics at the Yanshi Shang City site 

Abstract:This article presents an analysis of the bronze artifacts and smelting remains unearthed from the Yanshi Shang City site, focusing on microstructure, composition, and inclusions. The results reveal that the majority of bronze wares were crafted through casting processes. However, the skilled artisans of the Yanshi Shang City site possessed proficiency in various cold and hot processing techniques, particularly demonstrating a well-developed forging process. Tools and weapons, on the other hand, were fashioned through casting or forging methods, with the selection of these methods for shaping each type of bronze artifact appearing somewhat arbitrary. A standardized processing approach for specific tool and weapon categories may not have been established. The high tin and low lead content in tools and weapons from the Yanshi Shang City site can be traced back to alloy technology from the Erlitou period, which was further refined and developed. Additionally, evidence suggests that the Yanshi Shang City site engaged in copper melting activities, possibly indicating local production.

DENG Lingling et al. ...............................................71 

A preliminary study of the imperfect pottery sherds from ceramic workshops at Yanshi Shang City site

Abstract:This study delves into the analysis of misfired and overfired pottery fragments originating from the pottery workshop situated in the northeastern part of the Yanshi Shang City site. By examining the morphological characteristics and deformities present in these discarded pottery fragments, nine distinct types of defects have been identified. These defects include cracking, honeycomb-shaped bloating, layer bloating, bumps, blisters, secondary calcium carbonate crystal formation, deformation, fusing, and slags. These issues can be attributed to improper shaping and firing processes. Among the 130 identified defective pottery fragments, the primary culprits are water content, clay inclusions, and kiln temperature. It is worth noting that the skilled artisans who executed these procedures maintained a high degree of uniformity, resulting in a relatively low defect percentage. In conclusion, the pottery production at the Yanshi Shang City site operated with a high level of specialization and intensification.